International Journal of Medical Students <p>The International Journal of Medical Students (IJMS) is a peer-reviewed open-access journal (ISSN 2076-6327) created to share the scientific production and experiences of medical students and recently graduated physicians worldwide. Our objective is to be the primary diffusion platform for medical students, using standards that follow the process of scientific publication.</p> <p>The Journal receives contributions and unpublished manuscripts of Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, Case Reports, Interviews, Experiences, and Letters, which are reviewed by experts (Peer-Reviewers). This supports the quality and validity of the publications.</p> <p>The <em>IJMS</em> is published online triannually by the University Library System, University of Pittsburgh. The Journal's main office is located in the United States of America (USA). Any publication, dissemination, or distribution of the information included in the Journal is permitted if the source is cited (Int J Med Students).</p> <p>This journal provides immediate <em>open access</em> to its content. Our Open Access follows a “<em>diamond model</em>”; the Journal is free to both readers and authors, there are no article processing charges, submissions fees, or any other costs required of authors to submit, review, or publish articles.</p> University Library System, University of Pittsburgh en-US International Journal of Medical Students 2076-6327 <p id="copyright">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.</li> <li class="show">Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.</li> <li class="show">The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>&nbsp;or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions: <ol> <li class="show">Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.</li> <li class="show">The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. 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You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.</p> <p>If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to <a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Infringing material</em></p> <p>If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> Cover, Credits, & Content Executive Board of IJMS Copyright (c) 2021 Executive Committee of IJMS 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 1 8 10.5195/ijms.2021.1020 Back to the Future: Medicine Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic Madeleine J. Cox Leah Komer Ciara Egan Purva C. Shah Nikoleta Tellios Annora A. Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Madeleine J. Cox, Leah Komer, Ciara Egan, Purva C. Shah, Nikoleta Tellios, Annora A. Kumar 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 9 1 9 10 10.5195/ijms.2021.1023 Medical Student POCUS Peer-to-Peer Teaching: Ready for Mainstream <p><strong>Background:</strong> Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) is changing the face of clinical practice and medical education. Worldwide consensus based on expert opinion has advocated for POCUS teaching in undergraduate medical school curricula. Significant barriers, including lack of available instructors and limited resources, prevents medical learners from acquiring core competencies at most institutions. Here, we describe a peer-to-peer learning POCUS workshop and advocate for the use of this type of training to meet the demands of POCUS learning.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A two-day POCUS workshop was held in Toronto, Ontario with twenty-six medical student participants. The workshop was structured according to a graduated model of POCUS skill development, beginning with didactic teaching, then progressing to hands-on peer-to-peer teaching, and finishing with competency evaluation by POCUS experts. Participants completed pre-and post-workshop surveys regarding prior POCUS teaching and exposure, self-reported skill development, and feedback on the workshop itself.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 20 respondents to the questionnaire, 70% had prior POCUS exposure, with 85% of these individuals having less than 5 hours of prior POCUS education. Eighty-five percent of students reported that the organization of the course allowed them to participate fully, and 95% of participants indicated that peer-to-peer learning was effective.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings suggest that peer-to-peer POCUS teaching is an effective learning method to acquire and consolidate well-established POCUS competencies. This initiative is scalable and could be applied to all learners in various disciplines. As such, we recommend medical schools consider integration of peer-to-peer POCUS teaching into longitudinal clerkship training programs, and transition-to-residency courses.</p> Mazen El-Baba Kathryn Corbett Kate Dillon Claire Heslop Copyright (c) 2021 Mazen El-Baba, Kathryn Corbett, Kate Dillon, Claire Heslop 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 11 14 10.5195/ijms.2021.700 Case series: Point-of-Care Ultrasound Conducted by Medical Students During their First Clinical Rotation Changes Patients’ Primary Diagnosis and Management <p><strong>Background:</strong> As point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) becomes a standard of care procedure, medical schools around the world have started to seek the integration of POCUS courses into their curricula. This puts medical students in a unique position as they are trained in an area in which many physicians lack knowledge. This case series provides a glimpse into the capabilities of POCUS even when used by medical students.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fourth-year medical students at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev performed numerous POCUS exams during their first clinical rotation at Soroka University Medical Center in Israel. All students completed a course in basic POCUS training and were evaluated in a brief practical exam before entering their first clinical rotation. Four of the cases in which the students took part are presented in this case series.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The POCUS exam in the first case discovered pulmonary embolism in addition to the diagnosis of Cushing disease. In the second case, endocarditis could have been diagnosed three days earlier had a POCUS exam been performed. Case 3 demonstrates the additional contribution of POCUS to the decision-making process carried out by physicians and its superiority in quantifying and diagnosing pleural effusion compared to chest X-Ray. Case 4 indicated that POCUS is preferable over chest X-ray and auscultation for the diagnosis of pulmonary edema.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This case series may emphasize the capabilities POCUS has when utilized in the standard physical examination and the importance of incorporating POCUS instruction in medical schools for new physicians to acquire this skill.</p> Re'em Sadeh Tomer Gat Omer Kaplan Tzvika Porges Lior Zeller Leonid Barski Lior Fuchs Copyright (c) 2021 Re'em Sadeh, Tomer Gat, Omer Kaplan, Tzvika Porges, Lior Zeller, Leonid Barski, Lior Fuchs 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 15 20 10.5195/ijms.2021.558 Scatterplot Variations Seen in Malaria Using Automated Hematological Analyzers: A Series of Ten Cases <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria is a major health problem in India. Complete blood count and peripheral blood smear (PBS) is important for its diagnosis. Inter observer variation makes PBS fallible. Rapid diagnostic tests cannot detect low parasitemia and mixed infections. Scatterplot from automated analyzers have shown variations previously which might be exploited.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Scatterplot patterns of ten samples of confirmed malaria and 100 control samples were derived and other infections ruled out by culture and serology as a part of descriptive study between July and August 2018. Each malarial scatterplot was compared with the control pattern for abnormalities and their frequency noted.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All the ten samples belonged to <em>Plasmodium</em> <em>vivax </em>species. Abnormalities detected included split in neutrophilic region, eosinophil-neutrophil merge, neutrophil graying, lymphopenia, ghost red blood cells (RBC), eosinophil split, reactive lymphocytes, monocytosis, pseudoeosinophilia, neutrophilic leukocytosis</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Variations in scatterplot patterns are seen in malaria and provide clues to the diagnosis of malaria.</p> Ronit Juthani Tavish Gupta Debdatta Basu Copyright (c) 2021 Ronit Juthani, Tavish Gupta, Debdatta Basu 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 21 24 10.5195/ijms.2021.866 Folk Medicine in the Philippines: A Phenomenological Study of Health-Seeking Individuals <p><strong>Background:</strong> Folk medicine refers to traditional healing practices anchored on cultural beliefs of body physiology and health preservation. Reflective of indigenous heritage, it fosters a better understanding of health and disease, healthcare systems, and biocultural adaptation. In the Philippines, Quiapo is a well-known site for folk medicine services, cultural diversity, religious practices, and economic activities.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study utilized a phenomenological approach to comprehend the lived experiences of health-seeking individuals and the meaning behind their acquisition of folk medicine products. Using convenience sampling, seven participants acquiring folk medicine products in Quiapo on the day of data collection were approached and interviewed on separate instances. The collected data subsequently underwent thematic analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Analysis revealed three emergent themes: health-seeking behavior, sources of knowledge, and folk medicine utilization. Health-seeking behavior was linked with the participants’ purpose of going to Quiapo, reasons for utilizing folk medicine, experiences in using folk medicine, and beliefs associated with the product bought. Sources of knowledge tackled the participants’ sources of information about Quiapo and its products. Folk medicine utilization relates to the type of product bought, its perceived medicinal use, and its history of usage.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Folk medicine is perceived to be effective alleviating health concerns. The acquisition of such products is attributed to satisfaction from prior experience, distrust in the current healthcare system, family tradition, and intention to supplement existing medical treatment. This study provides health professionals a better understanding of patients who patronize folk medicine, subsequently aiding them in providing a holistic approach to treatment.</p> Nadine Angela Rondilla Ian Christopher N. Rocha Shannon Jean Roque Ricardo Martin Lu Nica Lois B. Apolinar Alyssa A. Solaiman-Balt Theorell Joshua Abion Pauline Bianca Banatin Carina Viktoria Javier Copyright (c) 2021 Nadine Angela Rondilla, Ian Christopher Rocha, Shannon Jean Roque, Ricardo Martin Lu, Nica Lois Apolinar, Alyssa Solaiman-Balt, Theorell Joshua Abion, Pauline Bianca Banatin, Carina Viktoria Javier 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 25 32 10.5195/ijms.2021.849 Medical Students’ Perception Towards the COVID-19 Pandemic in Mexico: Distance Learning, Assisting Hospitals, and Vaccination <p><strong>Background:</strong> Mexico has been one of the most affected countries by the COVID-19 pandemic. Its health workers are playing a substantial role, but they are suffering from a high mortality rate, which highlights the need of vaccinating them before any other population. Medical interns have reduced their practices, some continue to assist clinical rotations without the protective equipment, and they are not being considered for vaccination. We wanted to determine the attitude of medical students and interns towards distance learning, assisting hospitals, and vaccination.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We conducted a paired survey of a cohort of medical students who were evaluated twice, in June 2020 and in December 2020, using an online survey (32-online questions) to assess their perception of the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We collected the response of 384 students in the summer period and 331 in the winter period; the majority were women from non-clinical semesters, and the median age of response was 21 years old (IQR 19 – 22). We found that the percentage of acceptance for vaccination was 95.6% in the summer and 93.7% in the winter, a remarkable acceptance in both periods. The percentage of students who manifested having someone close to them with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 was 38.5% in the summer, showing an increase to 77.6% in the winter.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We observed that medical students had a positive attitude towards vaccination and that the probable COVID-19 cases among them have increased in just a few months.</p> Edgar Botello-Hernández Patricio Garcia-Espinosa Juan P. Ruiz-Padilla Gabriela Torres-Hernández Luis E. Fernandez-Garza Copyright (c) 2021 Edgar Botello-Hernández, Patricio Garcia-Espinosa, Juan P. Ruiz-Padilla , Gabriela Torres-Hernández, Luis E. Fernandez-Garza 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 33 36 10.5195/ijms.2021.935 The Utility of Recycled Eyeglasses: A Pilot Study at the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The cost of eyeglasses is variably covered by medical insurance and thus is a significant barrier for patients in lower socioeconomic classes. We wanted to evaluate the efficacy of Recycle Vision (RV) at LAC+USC Medical Center, a monthly clinic run by volunteer medical students that provides free donated eyeglasses.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>A convenience sample of 30 patients were surveyed from August 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019. Patients’ prescriptions were matched with available eyeglasses based on spherical equivalent and axis of astigmatism using Winglasses software algorithm; patients selected glasses from these options based on subjective improvement of vision. All participants consented to a phone follow-up survey 1 month after initial visit to gauge satisfaction with glasses and rate difficulty in completing daily activities pre- and post-RV visit on a scale of 1 to 5 (5 being the greatest), with a 100% response rate.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Of the 30 study participants, 90% received eyeglasses from RV, with reported improvement in ease of daily activities of 3.96. 67% of respondents stated that if RV clinic did not exist, they would not have obtained glasses elsewhere; cost was the most commonly (70%) cited barrier. Upon follow-up, average likelihood of patients referring friends/family to RV was 4.07 (SD 1.14).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The majority of RV patients received free eyeglasses and had subsequent improvement in their quality of life. This pilot study demonstrates that programs offering free eyeglasses can effectively correct refractive error and can offer a practical public health solution to improve functionality for underserved populations.</p> Valerie Huang Mary Kim Sukriti Mohan Lauren Daskivich Jesse Berry Copyright (c) 2021 Valerie Huang, Mary Kim, Sukriti Mohan, Lauren Daskivich, Jesse Berry 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 9 1 37 42 10.5195/ijms.2021.894 Childhood Adversity Linked to Neurological Circuitry Changes and Mental Health Disorders. Narrative Review <p>Children who experience adversity have increased risk for psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the exact alterations that occur in the neural circuitry and how that information may help lead to early diagnosis or preventive medicine. Research has shown that there are specific changes in neurological functional connectivity in the brain associated with childhood adversity. This review will examine recent papers that have investigated the correlation between these changes in brain connectivity and specific psychiatric disorders. Understanding the changes may help with preventive medicine by ensuring clinicians monitor patients with more severe history of adversity who are therefore at higher risk for developing a psychiatric disorder. This paper will also address potential recommendations that could be implemented in the future as research offers more conclusive evidence. Research is now beginning to address the questions of whether these changes can be attenuated, either during childhood or as adults.</p> Alexander Shand Copyright (c) 2021 Alexander Shand 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 43 51 10.5195/ijms.2021.608 8-Year-Old Child with Cerebral Palsy Treated with Pelvic Osteotomies Using 3.5 mm Blade Plate Having Subsequent Bilateral Implant Aseptic Loosening: A Case Report <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cerebral palsy (CP) is a central problem of the brain due to neurological insult that affects muscle posture, tone, and movement, resulting in poor motor control and dysfunctional muscle balance affecting hip joints in the growing child. Surgical treatment of hip and, if present, acetabular dysplasia addresses the femoral neck-shaft angle, appropriate muscle lengthening, and deficiency of acetabular coverage, as necessary. The surgeons perform proximal femoral osteotomies (PFOs) mostly with fixed angled blade plates (ABP) with proven success. The technique using an ABP is common and requires detailed attention to perform and to teach.</p> <p><strong>The Case:</strong> In this case, an eight-year-old ambulatory patient with CP underwent bilateral proximal varus femoral derotational and pelvic osteotomies for the neuromuscular hip condition with a 3.5 mm Locking Cannulated Blade System (OP-LCP) by OrthoPediatrics Corp instead of the use of the conventional 4.5 mm ABP procedure, resulting in aseptic loosening.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Due to the child’s underdeveloped posture, the surgeon utilized the 3.5 mm instrumentation for a child-size implant, which worked sufficiently for the surgery but may not have loosened if a similar child-size blade plate system of 4.5 mm screws was implanted. While the ABP and OP-LCP systems are effective and safe for internal corrections of PFOs, the OP-LCP system may aid the residents in learning the procedure with higher confidence, fewer technical inaccuracies, and refined outcomes. Both systems are safer and viable for the treatment of neuromuscular hip conditions.</p> Ahmed Nahian Julieanne P. Sees Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed Nahian, Julieanne P. Sees 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 9 1 52 55 10.5195/ijms.2021.698 Combatting Misinformation During the COVID-19 Pandemic Via Social Media <p>Misinformation or "fake news" has existed in society for quite a while, with healthcare related misinformation being especially problematic, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the false news circulating on the social media, many misconceptions exist about the disease and the pandemic, leading to people reacting in extreme and unrecommended ways that cause more harm than benefit. In order to combat this, the CMH Arts and Design Society took an initiative and formed a facebook page named "Pakistan Corona Virus Research Outlook" that aimed to present well researched facts regarding COVID-19 in the form of video or poster presentations, so that they could be understood easily by the general public. We also drafted an online handbook that addressed the basic concerns regarding the signs and symptoms of the disease, and the basic principles of management, so as to equip the people without medical knowledge with sufficient information for them to be able to manage mild symptoms themselves, without burdening the healthcare system. We also formed a facebook group by the name "Corona Virus (COVID-19) Free Counselling" that aimed to provide a platform to the public to ask their queries regarding COVID-19 which were then addressed by medical professionals. A post-COVID syndrome series was also initiated on these platforms that addressed the post-COVID symptoms individually and provided a follow up plan for each, based on expert guidelines.</p> Shehrbano Ali Muhammad Murad Murtaza Copyright (c) 2021 Shehrbano Ali, Muhammad Murad Murtaza 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 56 58 10.5195/ijms.2021.934 Speaking Medicine in the Silent Language: Experience with a Deaf Patient in Sri Lanka <p>Being deaf can pose challenges in everyday living, due to the fact that most deaf people cannot effectively communicate with the majority of non-deaf people in society. Effective communication plays a vital role when seeking medical services. As a developing nation, there have been several steps taken in Sri Lanka to bridge the communication gap between deaf and non-deaf people. Nevertheless, there is still a need to introduce a cost-effective communication system in governmental healthcare services. This experience highlights the importance of bridging the gap between healthcare providers and deaf patients, and suggests possible cost-effective ways to provide better quality healthcare services.</p> Hettiarachchige D. P. Jayawardana Copyright (c) 2021 Hettiarachchige D. P. Jayawardana 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 9 1 59 60 10.5195/ijms.2020.696 Two Student Perspectives on Clinical Medical Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>In the age of COVID19, the ultimate question in healthcare became who was essential and who was not. Basically, who could be cut from the roster in patient care? Unfortunately, as medical students, many of us did not make that cut, and as rotations were continually evolving and changing, students from even the same institution had varying experiences. Third-year clerkships are defined by the direct patient care and hands-on learning students get, but in the age of COVID19, “hands-on learning” has been a bit hard to come by. Hence, COVID has caused many changes in the way medicine is being taught and practiced. This article will detail the experiences of two medical students from the same institution, working in different locations for their third-year clerkships. We contrast our rural and urban experiences as students in the time of COVID and display the varying experiences students are having during this time. We touch on the potential ramifications for these wide varieties of experiences from students across the U.S. and how this will affect sub-internships and residency applications.&nbsp;</p> Anne P. George Elise E. Ewens Copyright (c) 2021 Anne P. George, Elise E. Ewens 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 9 1 61 62 10.5195/ijms.2021.909 Mexican Medical Students Protest During COVID-19 Pandemic <p>During February &nbsp;2021, a protest was organized by Mexican medical students through social media. About 200 interns, social service physicians and physicians protested peacefully in front of the city hall of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, the capital of Mexico's second largest metropolitan area. Due to the current contingency situation, it was requested to attend with face shield and masks. The reason for the protest was to raise their voice due to the precarious situation where social service physicians are sent to rural areas of the country in which they have all the obligations of workers but without belonging to the working class - lacking the the benefits of this same as a living wage or fair working hours. The protesters were in limbo between student and worker. The protest also demanded justice for the sensitive death of young doctors due to malpractice situations of the Mexican authorities. We believe that a total reform of the social service in medicine is necessary. It is the responsibility of the authorities to cover the rural areas with permanently trained doctors without depending on recently graduated doctors. It is always important to assert our fundamental rights, including the right to protest in a peaceful manner.</p> Gabriela Torres-Hernández Patricio García-Espinosa Edgar Botello-Hernández Diego Ortega-Moreno Copyright (c) 2021 Gabriela Torres-Hernández, Patricio García-Espinosa, Edgar Botello-Hernández, Diego Ortega-Moreno 2021-04-22 2021-04-22 9 1 63 65 10.5195/ijms.2021.948 Clinical Volunteering through the Pandemic: An Experience from Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria <p>First reported in Wuhan, China, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread globally causing it to be declared a pandemic. Its widespread nature necessitated lockdown measures in world nations including Nigeria.&nbsp;Instituted lockdown measures led to the closure of tertiary institutions in the country. Medical schools were designated as high-risk institutions due to possible exposure to COVID-19. With no measures for virtual learning, academic activities were put on hold, thus posing a challenge for medical students.&nbsp;The author in this article discovered an opportunity to learn in the midst of the lockdown by volunteering at a healthcare institution. In the course of volunteering, the author had symptoms highly suggestive of COVID-19. However, it was not confirmed by a Polymerase Chain Reaction test due to obstacles surrounding COVID-19 testing in the country.&nbsp;Following recovery, the author participated in risk communication to members of his community to curtail the spread and dispel the myths concerning COVID-19.&nbsp;While the volunteering experience provided an opportunity to continue medical education, it is vital that there be a shift in the Nigerian educational system to one where academic activities are not disrupted by pandemics or other situations that might not permit on-site learning.</p> Boluwatife Aderounmu Ayodele Odedara Copyright (c) 2021 Boluwatife Aderounmu, Ayodele Odedara 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 9 1 66 67 10.5195/ijms.2021.752 My Experience with Orbis International and the Flying Eye Hospital in Ethiopia Jibat G. Soboka Omar Salamanca Alana Calise Copyright (c) 2021 Jibat G. Soboka, Omar Salamanca, Alana Calise 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 9 1 68 70 10.5195/ijms.2021.848 Telemedicine Volunteering Experience as a Medical Student During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has strongly affected Brazil and many universities canceled in-person classes for an indefinite period. Many Brazilian medical students enrolled themselves as volunteers in telemedicine services across the country. This text will share the authors’ experience in telemedicine and their insights into the topic as volunteer medical students in Brazil.</span></p> Tulio Loyola Correa Mariana S. T. C. Guelli Copyright (c) 2021 Tulio L. Correa, Mariana S. T. C. Guelli 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 9 1 71 72 10.5195/ijms.2021.831 Learning from Hispanic Mentees: A Reflection on Cultural and Socioeconomic Differences <p>Oakland University William Beaumont - Hispanic Newcomer Outreach mentoring program offers medical students the opportunity to mentor local Hispanic teenagers. Here, we describe the experience of two medical students in the program with their mentees. Through the weekly phone calls and weekend activities, their relationships strengthened and the mentors learned invaluable lessons about the effects of socioeconomic status, gender roles, and culture that could not be learned from a classroom. This program helped shape their ever-evolving cultural humility, which highlights the importance of long-term, meaningful experiences with people from different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds in medical education.&nbsp;</p> Dana Rector Mary Nowlen Copyright (c) 2021 Dana Rector, Mary A. Nowlen 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 9 1 73 74 10.5195/ijms.2021.899 Service Learning Goes Virtual in the Viral World Joel Grunhut Shimron Brown Peter Averkiou Copyright (c) 2021 Joel Grunhut, Shimron Brown, Peter Averkiou 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 9 1 75 76 10.5195/ijms.2021.939 Learning Strategies and Innovations among Medical Students in the Philippines during the COVID-19 Pandemic <p><em>This paper highlights the experience of graduating medical students or clinical clerks in the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic. For instance, clinical clerks are supposed to be having their actual face-to-face patient encounters in the hospital setting. It is during the clinical clerkship, the final year of a four-year medical degree program, that a medical student applies his or her theoretical knowledge in practice. However, due to the pandemic, changes needed to be done in order to ensure continuous learning despite having to have little to no contact with actual patients. Hence, in this paper, various learning strategies and innovations have been presented to give examples of how Filipino medical students or clinical clerks tried to cope and adapt with the changes in the mode of learning in the medical field.</em></p> Trisha Denise D. Cedeño Ian Christopher N. Rocha Kimberly G. Ramos Noreen Marielle C. Uy Copyright (c) 2021 Trisha Denise D. Cedeño, Ian Christopher N. Rocha, Kimberly G. Ramos, Noreen Marielle C. Uy 2021-03-05 2021-03-05 9 1 77 79 10.5195/ijms.2021.908 Deprived of the Sea: Being a Kenyan Final-year Medical Student During the COVID-19 Outbreak <p>Five months after the confirmation of the first case of COVID-19 in Kenya, the cases and fatalities due to the disease is still on the rise. The effects of the disease in the developing country have been far-reaching, and closure of all learning institutions has now shifted attention to online learning. However, challenges such as inconsistent access to the internet and electricity have led to inequality in education access. As final-year medical students, online lectures have been a new exciting experience, but it also came with challenges. The halt in clinical medical education has significantly affected the learning and school calendar. Although we are almost done with our journey through medical school, we cannot proceed any further. However, we remain hopeful that a leeway shall be found, and we shall join other healthcare workers in serving our country.</p> Innocent Wafula Eunice M. Ong’era Copyright (c) 2021 Innocent Wafula, Eunice M. Ong’era 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 9 1 80 81 10.5195/ijms.2021.692 The Vigil of Medicine Kiersten Kelly Copyright (c) 2021 Kiersten Kelly 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 9 1 82 83 10.5195/ijms.2020.836 Hurricane Kids: Impact of Socioeconomic, Public Health, Medical Education, and Natural Disasters on a Doctor in Training <p>Primary care physicians (PCP’s) are patient’s first line of defense against any medical and social ailment. If patients can relate to and trust their PCP beyond the framework of their disease, they ‘stick’ with that doctor for life and bring their families along. This relatability and trust are often achieved through sharing your own story of a rising Phoenix. This article is a frank reflection upon unique experiences and personal challenges overcome while attending medical school in the treacherous tropical zones of both developed and developing countries. &nbsp;It touches upon the risks of study abroad programs, disaster medicine, and the role of international medical aid, and explains how these experiences shape a young physician. It teaches medical student community to embrace mission work and relief efforts early on in their medical career not only because hardships build character but also because they make doctors filter their treatment plan through a lens of real life, account for socioeconomic circumstances of their patients, and build more effective therapeutical alliances with them.</p> Kate Young Copyright (c) 2021 Kate Young 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 9 1 84 85 10.5195/ijms.2021.944 Cultural Placement: My Experience In A Remote Fly-in Indigenous Community In Northern Ontario, Canada Sebastian R. Diebel Copyright (c) 2021 Sebastian R Diebel 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 9 1 86 87 10.5195/ijms.2021.936 COVID-19: Not a Positive Test Result, but a Positive Outlook <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Turning the page into the new year was a relief for everyone. Indeed, it was a year of loss, destruction, and unrest. But beyond all this, we can still reflect back on the tumultuous year that is 2020 and catch sight of all the good that occurred. More so, it was a year of reconnecting with lost time, friends and family. Collectively, we were able to reinvent ourselves by slowing down and appreciating what we have. As a society, we grew together - hand in hand - to battle the prejudice that still remains deeply rooted in our country. As such, we can continue to make stride for a more free and safe world for future generations. COVID-19, a virus that crippled the world, opened the world’s eyes to the atrocities that occur on a daily basis. Despite the devastating images of overworked healthcare professionals throughout the pandemic, it is encouraging that future generations have not lost faith in medicine, and are still invigorated to pursue their passion.</span></p> Jae Yoo Nathaniel Mercer Copyright (c) 2021 Jae H. Yoo, Nathaniel P. Mercer 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 9 1 88 89 10.5195/ijms.2021.896 Coping Strategies for Medical Students During the Pandemic: A Nigerian Perspective <p>The COVID-19 pandemic was an unexpected experience for medical students all over Nigeria. Many medical schools were forced to halt academic activities while a few private institutions continued using online sessions.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Medical school in Nigeria gives less time for medical students to pursue other extra-curricular activities and although COVID-19 has brought a lot of unprecedented times, medical students have utilized the opportunity positively by engaging in different activities while accessing a variety of opportunities. Prior to the pandemic, medical students are also known to spend lesser time for social interactions, personal and professional development. Since the lockdown led to the halt of academic activities including lectures and exams in most medical schools in Nigeria, students have more time to explore other activities.</p> <p>Through constantly interacting with my medical colleagues all over Nigeria during the lockdowns, this experience provides a summary of the activities medical students have been engaging in during the lockdown to cope with the shocking changes.</p> Toluwalashe Soyemi Copyright (c) 2021 Toluwalashe Soyemi 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 9 1 90 91 10.5195/ijms.2021.720 Medical Electronic Devolution <p>-</p> Michael J. Olek Linsey Bui Copyright (c) 2021 Michael J. Olek, Linsey Bui 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 9 1 92 93 10.5195/ijms.2021.984 Providing Health Information on Social Media: What is the Limit for Medical Students? <p>Social media plays several important roles in medicine. Medical students are important and influential participants in the digital world because they are young, they dominate social network resources, and they have high engagement power. This letter presents some aspects about how medical students use their digital media abilities and knowledge to disseminate health information to patients and the public, <span lang="en">and what are some limits and best practices for them on these platforms.</span></p> Enrico Manfredini Copyright (c) 2021 Enrico Manfredini 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 9 1 94 95 10.5195/ijms.2021.979 Letter to the Editor Regarding “Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Mexico: An Opportunistic Medical Student-led Blood Pressure Screening Campaign – A Cross-Sectional Study” <p>Awareness campaigns on the consequences of chronic degenerative diseases are cost-effective strategies to educate the general population; these in turn can be carried out by groups of medical students that allow their rapid dissemination in different media as has been shown with the current pandemic; it is necessary to educate the general population on the relationship between systemic arterial hypertension and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Student groups focused on these diseases, such as the Group of Students Against Neurological Diseases (GECEN) of the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon (UANL) are an area of opportunity for community education.</p> Patricio Garcia-Espinosa Copyright (c) 2021 Patricio Garcia-Espinosa 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 9 1 96 97 10.5195/ijms.2021.960 Response to Letter to the Editor Regarding “Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Mexico: An Opportunistic Medical Student-led Blood Pressure Screening Campaign – A Cross-Sectional Study” José Adrián Yamamoto-Moreno Copyright (c) 2021 José Adrián Yamamoto-Moreno 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 9 1 98 99 10.5195/ijms.2021.1022