Recurrence of COVID-19: Treading the Fine Line Between Relapse and Re-infection
Keywords:COVID-19, Relapse, Reinfection
The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 that began in Wuhan, China, has constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, with cases confirmed in more than 200 countries. Currently, infected individuals are the primary source of infection and multiple cases of relapse are also reported following the recovery. It is highly concerning the nature of relapse which may be caused due to reactivation or reinfection. While the present testing scenario of using different molecular techniques has several loopholes that can report false results and hamper the process of effectively preventing the transmission of the virus. Various recommendations need modifications to effectively stop the horizontal transmission of the virus and look deeply into the links with relapse cases to prevent a second wave during a pandemic.
Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr. 2020 Apr;87(4):281-6.
Li X, Ma X. Acute respiratory failure in COVID-19: is it "typical" ARDS? Crit Care. 2020 May 6;24(1):198.
Worldometer. COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/. Last updated Sep 3 2020; cited Sep 3 2020
World Health Organization. Criteria for releasing COVID-19 patients from isolation. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/criteria-for-releasing-covid-19-patients-from-isolation. Last updated Jun 17 2020; cited Jul 3 2020.
Jiang M, Li Y, Han M, Wang Z, Zhang Y, Du X. Recurrent PCR positivity after hospital discharge of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Infect. 2020 Jul;81(1):147-78.
NPR News, npr.org. In South Korea, A Growing Number Of COVID-19 Patients Test Positive After Recovery. NPR Coronavirus Live Updates. Available from: https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-liveupdates/2020/04/17/836747242/in-south-korea-a-growing-number-of-covid-19-patients-testpositive-after-recover. Last updated 17 Apr 2020; cited 3 Jul 2020.
Anwar H, Khan QU. Pathology and Therapeutics of COVID-19: A Review. Int J Med Students. 2020 May-Aug;8(2):113-20.
Xie C, Lu J, Wu D, Zhang L, Zhao H, Rao B, et al. False negative rate of COVID-19 is eliminated by using nasal swab test. Travel Med Infect Dis. Sep-Oct 2020;37:101668.
Channappanavar R, Fett C, Zhao J, Meyerholz DK, Perlman S. Virus-Specific Memory CD8 T Cells Provide Substantial Protection from Lethal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. J Virol. 2014 Oct;88(19):11034-44.
Chaturvedi R, Naidu R, Sheth S, Chakravarthy K. Efficacy of Serology Testing in Predicting Reinfection in Patients With SARS-CoV-2. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020 Jun 24;1-3.
Enjuanes L, Zuñiga S, Castaño-Rodriguez C, Gutierrez-Alvarez J, Canton J, Sola I. Molecular Basis of Coronavirus Virulence and Vaccine Development. Adv Virus Res. 2016;96:245-286.
Petrosillo N, Viceconte G, Ergonul O, Ippolito G, Petersen E. COVID-19, SARS and MERS: are they closely related?. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Jun;26(6):729-34.
Zhang D, Guo R, Lei L, Liu H, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. COVID-19 infection induces readily detectable morphologic and inflammation-related phenotypic changes in peripheral blood monocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2020 Oct 11;10.1002/JLB.4HI0720-470R.
Elberry MH, Ahmed H. Occult SARS-CoV-2 infection; a possible hypothesis for viral relapse . Med Hypotheses. 2020 Nov;144:109980.
Brufsky A. Distinct viral clades of SARS-CoV-2: Implications for modeling of viral spread. J Med Virol. 2020 Sep;92(9):1386-90.
Wang L, Wang Y, Ye D, Liu Q. Review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) based on current evidence. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Jun;55(6):105948. Epub 2020 Mar 19. Erratum in: Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Sep;56(3):106-37.
Ye G, Pan Z, Pan Y, Deng Q, Chen L, Li J, et al. Clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reactivation. J Infect. 2020 May;80(5):e14-e17.
Traylen CM, Patel HR, Fondaw W, Mahatme S, Williams JF, Walker LR, et al. Virus reactivation: a panoramic view in human infections. Future Virol. 2011 Apr;6(4):451-63.
Chu H, Chan JF, Yuen TT, Shuai H, Yuan S, Wang Y, et al Comparative tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage profiling of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV with implications for clinical manifestations, transmissibility, and laboratory studies of COVID-19: an observational study. Lancet Microbe. 2020 May;1(1):e14-e23.
Ganyani T, Kremer C, Chen D, Torneri A, Faes C, Wallinga J, et.al Estimating the generation interval for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) based on symptom onset data, March 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Apr;25(17):2000257.
He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, Deng X, Wang J, Hao X et.al Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020 May;26(5):672-675. Epub 2020 Apr 15. Erratum in: Nat Med. 2020 Sep;26(9):1491-93.
Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z et.al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020 Mar 28;395(10229):1054-1062. Epub 2020 Mar 11. Erratum in: Lancet. 2020 Mar 28;395(10229):1038. Erratum in: Lancet. 2020 Mar 28;395(10229):1038.
Hindson J. COVID-19: faecal-oral transmission?. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 May;17(5):259.
Agarwal S, Mistry H. Clinical Course of a Covid-19 Patient with Gastrointestinal Symptoms- A Case Report. Int J Med Students. 2020 May-Aug;8(2):148-51.
Xia J, Tong J, Liu M, Shen Y, Guo D. Evaluation of coronavirus in tears and conjunctival secretions of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. J Med Virol. 2020 Jun;92(6):589-94.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to email@example.com